The struggle for independence in the thirteen colonies from Great Britain during the period of the American Revolution were difficult times. The outcome was a war that often not only involved neighbor against neighbor, but drew into conflict the Native Americans, and displaced thousands of people from their homeland and ultimately created two nations. The inhabitants of the thirteen colonies who did not oppose Great Britain were known as Loyalists. Over 19,000 Loyalists, mostly men, served Great Britain in a military capacity accompanied by several thousand Indians.
This article will endeavor to give some insight into the Loyalist families who resided on the Susquehanna during the American Revolution. Settlement had begun on the upper Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania prior to the American Revolution. The histories relate that two families of Germans, also known as Palatines, from the Schoharie Valley in New York, were settlers in May 1770, leaving their homes in New York and removing down the Susquehanna River into Pennsylvania. Rudolph Fox and his wife Catharine Elisabetha Miller settled at Towanda and the Shoefelt family further south on the river, the latter family removing to the West Branch of the Susquehanna. Several more German families from the Mohawk, Schoharie, and other German settlements in New York soon followed. Though this was considered the interior of civilization, German settlers had removed from Schoharie Creek, crossed the mountains and traveled down the Susquehanna for Tulpehocken and Swartara in Pennsylvania at much earlier dates, the first in 1722, fifty or more families in 1725, and again in 1729.
Prior to, during, and after the American Revolution, the State of Connecticut claimed a large portion of Pennsylvania, including that portion that is now Bradford and Wyoming Counties through which the Susquehanna River flows. Those settlers who attempted to obtain land titles either secured title under the Susquehanna Company, which had been formed in Connecticut for the purpose of settlement in the Wyoming Valley and nearby lands or under Pennsylvania title. Others had leasehold interests, some of which appeared to be ten-year contracts with the landholder. Many others simply settled without title, hoping for obtainment by possession or to secure title after settlement. Pennsylvania had issued warrants for land interests before the settlement by the Fox and Shoefelt families, as evidenced by the warrant for Peter Hunt dated 3 April 1769 for 300 acres on the Susquehanna River adjoining Adolph Wallrad "on this side of Wialoosing" (Wyalusing).
Most of the settlers along the Susquehanna were farmers and built homes along the river where they planted crops, often in already cleared fields they found when arriving, that had been previously cultivated by the Indians. They built barns and other storage facilities, erected fences, and began the task of clearing more land. The farms or plantations as they were known were productive on the fertile soils of the Susquehanna River Valley.
Research into these families who were settling on the Susquehanna reveals they were of various ethnic groups and from various locations within the colonies. Several families were Germans from the Mohawk and Schoharie Valleys in New York, a few were of French Huguenot extraction from the Hudson Valley region, others were of Dutch extraction from New York, others were New Englanders from Connecticut, a few were from Sussex County, New Jersey and others were Germans from settlements in southern Pennsylvania.
As the days of the American Revolution drew closer, the reasons for becoming Loyalists were varied and many. The native German, for instance, had deference for authority and loyalty to Great Britain for giving them passage to the colonies. This allegiance also held true for the majority of the German families along the Susquehanna. Scattered along the Susquehanna, both Loyalists and Patriots differed in their perceptions of the country and its future. The line between Patriot and Loyalist was not always sharply drawn and often circumstances dictated ones choice. As circumstances developed it would appear several families from the Wilkes Barre area of the Wyoming Valley removed further up the Susquehanna River prior to the Revolution into present Bradford and Wyoming Counties perhaps to be further from their neighbors who were beginning to pledge allegiance to the struggle against Great Britain.
At an adjourned town meeting of the inhabitants of Westmoreland held at Wilkes Barre January 6, 1776, among the several resolutions adopted was the following relating to the families settled some thirty or forty miles above Wilkes Barre: "Voted that Solomon Strong and Robert Carr and Nathan Kingsley be a committee to proceed up the river and let the people known that the inhabitants of Westmoreland are not about to kill and destroy them and take any of their effects as reported, but they may keep their effects and continue in peace on reasonable terms provided they conform to the laws of the Colony of Connecticut and the Resolves of the Continental Congress, and confirm their intentions by signing the subscription paper for that purpose that said committee will produce."
In 1776 there was an assessment list compiled of the settlers in the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland, State of Connecticut. The Upper River District was comprised mostly of settlers in present Bradford and Wyoming Counties who were settled along the Susquehanna River. The list contains the names of 60 males. The names of Anger, Bender, Bowman, Brunner, Buck, Depue, DeWitt, Fox, Frank, Hickman, Hopper (Hover), Kentner, Pauling, Pensler (Pencel), Phillips, Shout (Short), Showers, Searls (Sills), Simmons, Smith (originally Schmidt), Stephens, Strope, VanAlstine, Vanderbarrack (Vanderburgh), Vanderlip, VanValkenburg, Windecker, Winter, and Wartman indicate several families of German and Dutch nativity were settled on the Susquehanna. Of those 60 names, it has been determined that 37 were Loyalists, 16 were non-Loyalists, and 7 are presently unknown. Pennsylvania also soon levied taxes, not recognizing Connecticut titles and landholders, several Pennsylvania titleholders probably living along side many of the settlers on the Upper River District assessment list who do not appear on that list. The first tax lists for the same jurisdiction under Pennsylvania and known as Wyoming Township, Northumberland County exists for 1778 and 1779 though at that date the majority of Loyalist families had left the Susquehanna.
The original Up The River District, County of Westmoreland, State of Connecticut, August 1776 assessment list is here given:
At the October 1776 session of the General Assembly of Connecticut a certificate was received from the Listers of Westmoreland setting forth that "the Grand List for the town of Westmoreland, made on the August lists for the year 1776 is £6996, 13 shillings. As the days darkened, those who felt loyalty to the crown made various preparations, many of the men joining the ranks of Butler's Rangers and departing for New York and Canada, often leaving women and children behind to care for the plantations. Those who remained were branded as traitors and often threatened. Nearly every man on the Susquehanna who joined Butler's Rangers to fight against the American Colonies were in Walter Butler's Company or William Caldwell's Company. At least twelve of the names found on the 1776 assessment list of the Upper River District can be found on the list of Caldwell's Company and at least eleven on the list of Walter Butler's Company.
Families along the Susquehanna did not escape conflict. Threats, plunder, and death struck on both sides. Many of their families suffered great hardships, women often endeavoring to maintain livestock and crops while their husbands and sons were away. In the early conflict it soon became apparent that the Susquehanna was under Patriot control. Often fleeing in panic and confusion, Loyalist exiles began on the Susquehanna, forced to leave behind possessions and often faced with an unpromising future. Families were driven from their homes to watch them burn, livestock driven off and entire household contents plundered and taken. Loyalist men who were away in Butler's Rangers returned to vulnerable families and were often imprisoned. Some families ventured to the Mohawk Valley in New York, others to Niagara, and still others to the refugee camps of Sorel and Machiche in Lower Canada (now Quebec) where barracks were built and provisions secured. Harsh living conditions often plagued families in refugee camps.
In 1777, another assessment was taken of the same district, several of the Loyalist families not appearing, already having departed.
The following petition is of interest:
"To the Honourable General Assembly of the State of Connecticut, now sitting at Hartford, the memorial of Lemuel Fitch, Richard J. Jeralds (Fitzgerald), Amos York, Benjamin Skiff, Benjamin Eaton, Benjamin Merry, John Williamson, Frederick Vanderlip, Nathan Kingsley, Nicholas Depew, Elijah Brown, Elijah Phelps, Ichabod Phelps, Elijah Phelps, Jr., James Forsythe, Thomas Millard, Thomas Millard, Jr., and James Wells, of the County of Westmoreland, humbly showeth: That your memorialists were settlers on the Susquehanna river, in the upper part of the county aforesaid, nearly adjoining the Indian settlements, and were very much exposed to being plundered, robbed, and captivated by the Indians and Tories, and were obliged to leave our possessions and move off with our families and effects to a different part of the country for safety, whereby your memorialists are deprived of the privilege of our settlements and improvements for the support of our families; whereupon your memorialists pray your Honours would take our case into your consideration, and grant that our several rates made on the list of August, 1777, may be abated, or in some other way may grant relief, as your memorialists in duty bound will ever pray. Signed Elijah Phelps, on behalf of himself and others. Hartford, the 27th day of May, 1778."
The above petition is not a true statement of the facts or perhaps an awareness was unknown of the fate of some families or their allegiance. Fitch, Kingsley, and York were captives among the Indians while the Forsythe, Millard, Phelps, Vanderlip, and Williamson families were Loyalists.
Some of the Loyalists fighting on the British side who tried to return to their plantations and families were executed by those who they were serving.
Richard McGinnis, a soldier in the Rangers, wrote of Jacob Hutsinger and Peter Simmons, Rangers:
While we were at Tioga, there was two men who had wives and children there that had lived somewhere down the river, the name of the place I don't remember. Their sir names were Hotsinger and the other Simmons. These two men was good subjects and had been at the Orisque battle with Colonel Butler and Captain Brant and behaved with honour to themselves. These men told me more than once that Colonel Butler had gave themselves leave to stay and go and gather in their harvest for the use of their families to support them on the road to Niagara. But on the whole Captain Caldwell would not let them go at any rate. Upon this these men, to wit Hotsinger and Simmons, took leave and went off by stealth. Captain Caldwell immediately sent off Lieutenant Turney with a party to Tioga. When they came to Tioga they were informed by the people going to Niagara they had not seen them. When on the way back they met those unhappy men and Turney immediately gave orders to shoot them, which was executed accordingly. Their scalps were taken likewise and brought to Oughquaga and hung up at Captain Caldwell's tent. In my judgement this was not well done, as they might have made prisoners of them.
A monthly return of the Rangers dated late in 1778, recorded that they were killed at Tioga on 18 August 1778. In April 1779, Henry Simmons, Peter's father was paid £12, the balance due for his son's outstanding pay.
As the conflict progressed, armed Loyalists and Indians returned to the Susquehanna and the Patriots were in turn driven from their homes. The once developing and flourishing plantations on the Susquehanna were soon void of most families as the conflict and dangers of living on the frontier intensified. Many Loyalist families had hoped to return. The terms of the capitulation worked out between Colonel John Butler after the attack on Wyoming in July 1778 in the sixth article stated - "That the properties taken from the people called Tories up the River be made good and they to remain in peaceable possession of their Farms and unmolested in a free Trade throughout this state as far as lies in my power."
It is probable that some plantations may have extended beyond Tioga Point on both the Chemung River and Susquehanna River in New York. Rev. David Craft stated – "It is very certain that quite a number of Loyalists had homes of more or less permanence extending from Tioga Point to Chemung. A Fitzgerald farm was mentioned by Sullivan's soldiers as opposite Barton in present Tioga County, New York "and in ruins in 1779." Lieutenant William McKendry with the Clinton Campaign enroute to meet General Sullivan wrote – "We are now 6 miles from Genl. Sullivans camp – one Fitch Jerritt had lived at this place and is now with Genl. Sullivan as a Pilate." Lieut. John Jenkins with the Sullivan campaign on their return trip wrote on September 29, 1779 –"The army left Fort Reed (located at present Elmira) and marched 10 miles toward Fort Sullivan passing Butler's breastworks. We encamped at night on a flat 2 miles below Chemung. This evening Capt. Spalding returned from a command up the Tioga branch where he destroyed a small town and about 10 acres of corn, the fences, &c. This town appeared to have been built by white people."
Many journals of officers and enlisted men of the Sullivan campaign recorded the plantations they encountered along the Susquehanna River on their expedition in 1779 to destroy the settlements of the Six Nations. One of the journals states – "After this we soon arrived at Standing Stone Flats, distant from Wyalusing ten miles. Here is plenty of good land, fit for meadow and for raising wheat and other grain. It was formerly settled by a few families, some of whom have since been so villainous as to join the savages." (Journal of Rev. William Rogers, D. D., Chaplain of General Hand's Brigade).
Another journal states – "Aug 4 - Marched at 6 o'clock proceeded 17 miles to a dessolated farm call'd Vanderlips which is an excellent tract of land we passed several dessolated farms to day one of which was on a Streem 5 miles from where we incamp'd last night call'd Meshoping. Aug 8th - The Army march'd at 6 o'clock I had the flank Guard passed Several high mountains & several dessolate farms proceeded to what is call'd the Standing Stone bottom where there is a learge body of excellent land that has been Improv'd. Aug 9 - March'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 3 miles to a dessolate farm on the mouth of a streem call'd Wesawking" (Journal of Lieutenant Colonel Henry Dearborn).
Another journal relates – "Thursday 5th. - Thus we moved for several miles, then arrived in a small valley called Depue's farm; the land very good. Continued our march . . . and arrived in a fine and large valley, known by the name of Wyalusing. This valley was formerly called Oldman's farm, occupied by the Indians and white people; together, they had about sixty houses, a considerable Moravian meeting house, and sundry other public buildings; but since the commencement of the present war the whole has been consumed and laid waste, partly by the savages and partly by our own people. The land is extraordinarily calculated chiefly for meadows. The grass at this time is almost beyond description, high and thick, chiefly blue grass, and the soil of the land very rich. The valley contains about 1200 acres of land, bounded on one side by an almost inacessible mountain, and on the other by the river Susquehanna." (Journal of Lieutenant Colonel Adam Hubley).
Many of the Loyalists of the Susquehanna can be found on provision lists of Machiche or at Niagara. The July/Aug 1779 provision list of Machish (Machiche) included
Conrad Sell (Sill),
Mrs. Franks, Stephen Farrington,
Edward Stokes, and
all former residents on the Susquehanna. Of the 294 people on the list, only 18 were men, the remainder woman and children.
Many of the Susquehanna plantation owners removed to Niagara as the majority were part of Butler's Rangers. In 1781, Lieutenant Colonel John Butler declared that four or five families newly settled would require for seed sixty bushels of spring wheat and oats, twelve of buckwheat and a barrel of Indian corn. Peter and James Secord, two of the heads of families, were about to build a saw and gristmill. A census of the new settlement was taken by Col. Butler on August 25th, 1782.
Besides the Secords were
McGregor VanEvery, and
There were sixteen families consisting of eighty-three persons. Cleared land made a total of 238 acres (Haldimand papers)." Several of these families had been former residents on the Susquehanna.
When the war drew to a close in 1783, more than 40,000 men, women, and children displaced from the colonies, settled in Canada. The greatest numbers removed to present day Ontario, including the majority of the Susquehanna settlers. Colonel John Butler, whose land and home had been in the Mohawk Valley of New York and who had led disastrous strikes against the Patriot settlers on the Susquehanna, including the Wyoming Battle in July 1778, led his followers to the west bank of the Niagara River when the regiment disbanded in 1784. The government provided land in Canada for Loyalists and the petitions of many are valuable resources for learning of the trials and misfortunes that many of these families experienced. A few, such as Jacob Bowman returned, but for most, their homes and plantations on the Susquehanna were lost forever.
"Since the settlers were going into the wilderness with little prospect of supporting themselves until they had cleared sufficient land, the British Government provided them with rations on a reducing scale for three years (beginning in 1784). In the first year they received full rations for each person over 10 years of age, two thirds in the second year, and one third in the third and final year. Small children under 10 years of age received half of the amount that adults were given. After the end of the third year the settlers were expected to be able to support themselves. A typical daily ration consisted of one pound of flour and one pound of beef or 12 ounces of pork, but there were considerable variation depending on availability in different localities (Crowder)."
Besides rations, Britain also compensated them for war losses. The definition for eligibility was – Loyalists were those born or living in the American colonies at the outbreak of the Revolution who rendered substantial service to the royal cause during the war, and who left the United States by the end of the war or soon after. Some left substantially later, mainly to gain land and to escape growing intolerance.
The provisioning lists and land petitions for Loyalists and children of Loyalists, offer valuable information about the Susquehanna families. Many petitions indicate extensive cleared lands, large quantities of animals, homes and buildings along the Susquehanna River.
The claim of Philip Buck stated – "He had a proprietor's right on Susquehanna, settled in 1771. Paid $10, 15 acres clear, built a house, barn and barrick. Lost 2 cows, 2 young creatures, 4 sheep, 20 hogs, furniture, utensils, grain, 100 bushel. Lost grain, 20 hogs by the rebels when we went away in '77. The Indians had his other cattle in '78. His furniture and utensils were left behind." Michael Showers witnessed his statement and stated – "He had settled on the Susquehanna. He had 20 or 25 acres clear and very good buildings." Neighbors often were witnesses, which further helps to establish the identities of some families who did not appear on the August 1776 and August 1777 assessment lists.
The Loyalist and non-Loyalist families from the 1776 assessment list are here given:
Elisha Wilcox - Loyalist - Thorn Bottom (20 miles from Pittstown)
Icahbod Phelps - non-Loyalist
Ephraim Tyler - non-Loyalist
John Secord - Loyalist - opposite Tunkhannock
James Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
Jacob Sage (perhaps Jacob Segar or Sager) - if Segar/Sager perhaps Loyalist
Peter Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
Joshua Beebe - Loyalist
Isaac Laraby (perhaps Larabee) - unknown
Frederick Vanderlip - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
Abram Workman (Wartman) - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
Philip Bender - Loyalist
John Williamson - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
Elijah Phelps - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek on west side of Susquehanna River
Read Melory (perhaps Mallory) - unknown
Prince Bryant - non-Loyalist
Nathan Kingsley - non-Loyalist
Stephen Ferrington - Loyalist – "Crossed over the hills to Farringdon's, who lives at a small run's mouth 8 miles above Tunkhannock" (Jesse Lukens journal)
Jacob Bowman - Loyalist
Nicholas Depue - non-Loyalist
Thomas Wigton - non-Loyalist
Adam Bowman - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
Amos York - non-Loyalist
Elijah Brown - unknown
Josiah Dewey - unknown
Philip Buck - Loyalist - mouth of Tunkhannock Creek
Edward Hicks - Loyalist - Sugar Run (present Wilmot Township, Bradford County)
Thomas Millard - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek on west side of Susquehanna River
Thomas Millard, Jr. - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek on west side of Susquehanna River
David Bigsby (Bixby) - non-Loyalist
Gasper Hopper (Caspar Hover) - Loyalist - Terrytown on west side of Susquehanna River
Hendrick Winter - Loyalist - Wyalusing
John Stephens - Loyalist
Frederick Smith - Loyalist
Huldrick Shout (Johan Hendrick Short) - Loyalist
Frederick Frank - Loyalist
Henry Simmons - Loyalist
Henry Windecker - Loyalist
Ben & Will Pawling - Loyalists - Wyalusing
Nicholas Phillips - Loyalist - north of Wyalusing
George Kentner - Loyalist - Sugar Run Creek
Reuben Herrington - non-Loyalist
John Depue - Loyalist - Skinner's Eddy (though he may have removed up river to Wyalusing)
Andrew Hickman - unknown
John Dewit - unknown
Zebulon Marcy - non Loyalist
Frederick Anger - Loyalist - Asylum
Abel Palmer - non Loyalist
Fox (probably Rudolph) - non-Loyalist - Towanda
Isaac VanValkenburg - non-Loyalist though eldest son and a daughter removed to Canada as Loyalists
Wysox Cole - non-Loyalist
Bastian Strope - non-Loyalist - Wysox
Jacob Brunner - Loyalist - Macedonia
Lemuel Fitch - non-Loyalist
Isaac VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone
Old VanAlstine (Lambert VanAlstine) - Loyalist - Standing Stone
James VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone
Coonrad Seaerls (Conrad Sills) - Loyalist - Rummerfield
Isaac Laraway - Loyalist - Wysox
In addition to the above, on the 1777 assessment list the Loyalist who appeared were:
John Pensler (Pensel)
Frederick Anker (Anger)
Gart Vanderbarrack (Garrett Vanderburgh)
In addition, there were Loyalist families who did not appear on the assessment lists and they included:
Jacob Anguish and wife Elisabeth,
Redman Berry who is related to have been a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing,
James Forsyth and wife Eunice at Wyalusing,
Philip Fox and Catherine Lamar at Terrytown,
John Lord at Sheshequin,
Joseph Page a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing,
Jacob Sipes and Annatje Schauers (Showers) at Macedonia,
George Stewart and Mary Depue,
Jacob Teague and Anna Margretha Weaver on Tagues Creek near Tunkhannock,
Parshall Terry, Jr.,
For preliminary genealogies on the above Loyalist families prepared by J. Kelsey Jones, see the files at the Bradford County Historical Society.
1. Luzerne County Historical Society - original Upper River District assessment lists, 1776 and 1777.
2. Butler's Rangers, Caldwell's Company - We the undermentioned Commissioned & non Commissioned Officers & Privates of Captain William Caldwell's Company of Rangers do acknowledge to have received from John Butler Esqr. Major Commandant of a Corps of Rangers the full amount of our Pay from 24th December 1777 to 24th October 1778 inclusive. Gives list of several men of whom at least fourteen were from the Susquehanna and appear on the 1776 assessment list of the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland, State of Connecticut.
3. Murray, Louise Wells. A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylvania. 1908.
4. Craft, Rev. David. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1878.
5. Bradsby, H. C. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches. Chicago Illinois. 1891.
6. Reid, William D. The Loyalists in Ontario: The Sons and Daughters of the American Loyalists of Upper Canada. Lambertville, NJ, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1973.
7. Fraser, Alexander. Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario. Toronto, Canada: L. K. Cameron, 1905.
8. Centennial Committee. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Toronto, Canada: Rose Publishing Co., 1885.
9. Connecticut Archives, Susquehanna Settlers, No. 90.
10. Land under Certificates of Location, Districts of Mecklenburg and Lunenburg 1790 RG1, L4, Vol 12.
11. Munger, Donna Bingham. Connecticut's Pennsylvania Colony 1754-1810 – Susquehanna Company Proprietors, Settlers and Claimants. 3 vol.Westminster,Maryland:HeritageBooks,2007.
12. The Loyalist Gazette, Volume XLIII, No. 1, Spring 2005.
13. Reaman, G. Elmore. The Trail of the Black Walnut. Scottdale, Pennsylvania, Herald Press, 1957.
14. Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. Columbus, Ohio: University at Columbus, 1920.
15. Cruikshank, Lieut-Colonel E. Ten Years of the Colony of Niagara 1780-1790. Welland, Ontario: Tribune Print. 1908 16. Cruikshank, Brig. General E. A. Records of Niagara –A Collection of Documents Relating to the First Settlement 1778-1783.
Thanks Kelsey for allowing me to present your well written article on the Loyalists that appeared in "The Settler" magazine published by the Bradford County Historical Society, Towanda, Pennsylvania.
17. Linn, John Blair. Annals of Buffalo Valley, Pennsylvania 1755-1855. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Lane S.Hart Printer. 1877.
18. Turner, O. History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase and Morris' Reserve: embracing the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Livingston, Yates, Steuben, Most of Wayne and Allegany, and parts of Orleans, Genesee and Wyoming. Rochester, N Y: 1851.
19. Crowder, Norman K. Early Ontario Settlers – A Source Book. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1993. 20. Egle, William Henry. Notes and Queries – Historical and Genealogical Chiefly Relating to Interior Pennsylvania. Volume I, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co. 1970.
21. Records of St. Mark's and St. Andrew's Churches, Niagara.
22. Booth, Charles Edwin. The Vanderlip, Van Derlip, VanderLippe Family in America. N Y: 1914.
23. Records of the Lutheran Trinity Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery County, New York.
24. Records of the Reformed Dutch Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery County, New York.
25. Taylor, Robert J. The Susquehanna Company Papers.Vol V: 1772-74, Wilkes Barre, PA.
26. Reid, William D. Death Notices of Ontario. Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon House. 1980.
27. Cook, Frederick–Secretary of State. Journals of the Military Expedition of Major John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 with Records of Centennial Celebrations. Auburn, New York: Knapp, Peck & Thomson. 1887.
28. Harvey, Oscar Jewel. A History of Wilkes Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Vol II, Wilkes Barre. 1909.
29. Detty, Victor Charles. History of the Presbyterian Church of Wysox, Pensylvania 1791 - 1936. lmira, NY: Barber & Doane, Inc. 1937.
30. Penrose, Maryly Barton. Baumann/Bowman Family of the Mohawk, Susquehanna & Niagara Rivers. Franklin Park, New Jersey: Liberty Bell Associates. 1977.
31. Boyd, Julian P. The Susquehanna Company Papers. Vol. IV 1770-1772: Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. 1933.
32. McBride, Robert Collins. Biography of John Stevens Senior UE. The Loyalist Gazette, Volume XLIII, Spring 2005 and September 2005.
33. Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. University at Columbus, Ohio. 1920.